100 B.C.
-0100 XX XX Sulla, Lepidus, Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, and Octavian (Augustus) will rule Rome in this century.
-0100 XX XX Rome’s plebeian tribunes Saturnius and Glaucia propose cheaper corn for the very poor plus other new social laws. Nobles in the Senate outlaw the popular leaders, and both are murdered with the complicity of Gaius Marius, the general.
-0100 XX XX Mosiah 27

99 B.C.
-0099 XX XX Rome’s second Servile War ends after 4 years as the consul M. Aquillius subdues an army of slaves that has put up a stubborn resistance.

96 B.C.
-0096 XX XX The Seleucid king Antiochus VIII is murdered by his court favorite Heracleon after a 29-year reign in which he has been forced to divide the realm with his half brother Antiochus IX, who will reign alone until 95 B.C.

95 B.C.
-0095 XX XX The Seleucid king Antiochus IX is defeated in battle and killed by the son of his late half brother who will reign briefly as Seleucus VI.

94 B.C.
-0094 XX XX Armenia Minor’s King Artanes is deposed by a descendant of the first king of Armenia Major, who has been held hostage for several years by Parthians but is ransomed for “70 valleys.” He unites the two countries and at 45 begins a 38-year reign as Tigranes I that will make Armenia the most powerful nation in western Asia.

93 B.C.
-0093 XX XX Armenia’s Tigranes II seals an alliance with the Parthian king Mithridates by marrying his daughter Cleopatra. Tigranes has murdered a neighboring Armenian prince and taken over his territory. He invades the kingdom of Cappadocia in the name of his new father-in-law, but the Roman general L. Cornelius Sulla comes to the aid of Cappadocia and forces Tigranes to retire.

92 B.C.
-0092 XX XX Parthia’s Mithridates II makes an alliance with Rome and prepares to invade Mesopotamia.
-0092 XX XX Mosiah 28

91 B.C.
-0091 XX XX 1 The Republic of Italia is set up by Italian insurrectionists, who establish a capital at Corfinium and begin a 3-year war against Rome.
-0091 XX XX Mosiah 29
-0091 XX XX Alma 1

90 B.C.
-0090 XX XX 2 Alma 17: 6-39
-0090 XX XX Alma 18
-0090 XX XX Alma 19
-0090 XX XX Alma 20

89 B.C.
-0089 XX XX 3 Alma 21

88 B.C.
-0088 XX XX 4 Parthia’s Mithridates the Great dies after a 36-year reign in the closing years of which he has conquered Mesopotamia. His son-in-law Tigranes II of Armenia invades Parthia and begins a war in which he will recover the 70 valleys paid for his ransom in 95 B.C. and overrun four Parthian vassal states, reducing the size of Parthia and extending the borders of Armenia.
-0088 XX XX The king of Pontus Mithradates VI Enpator begins the first of three wars that he will wage against Rome. Now 44, Mithradates has made himself master of Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, and all of the Black Sea’s southern and eastern coasts.
-0088 XX XX Civil war breaks out in Rome as the legions suppress the insurrection of 3 years ago and as fresh legions are raised to fight the king of Pontus.

87 B.C.
-0087 XX XX 5 Alma 22
-0087 XX XX The Roman general L. Cornelius Sulla marches on Rome. He kills the demagogue P. Sulpicius Ruffus and other rebels, and he leaves for Asia as proconsul after having instituted reforms that will be short-lived.
-0087 XX XX Alma 2
-0087 XX XX A new Roman demagogue appears in the person of L. Cornelius Cinna, who begins a reign of terror against the reactionary Roman nobility.
-0087 XX XX Alma 3

86 B.C.
-0086 XX XX 6 Athens falls to Rome’s General Sulla, who defeats the forces of Mithradates and his allies.
-0086 XX XX Alma 4:1-4

85 B.C.
-0085 XX XX 7 Alma 4:5
-0085 XX XX Alma 23

84 B.C.
-0084 XX XX 8 Sulla forces Mithradates to make peace, to evacuate all the territories he has conquered, to surrender 80 warships, and to pay an indemnity of 3,000 talents. Sulla sails for Brundisium, leaving two legions to police Rome’s Asiatic territories and help L. Licinius Lucullus collect a fine of 20,000 talents from the Asiatic cities.
-0084 XX XX The Seleucid king Antiochus XII, who has seized Damascus, is killed on an expedition against the Nabataeans.
-0084 XX XX Alma 4:6-10

83 B.C.
-0083 XX XX 9 Alma 4:11-20
-0083 XX XX Alma 5
-0083 XX XX Alma 6
-0083 XX XX Alma 7
-0083 XX XX Alma 24

82 B.C.
-0082 11 XX 10 Sulla repels rebellious Samnites from Rome in the Battle of the Colline Gate. Sulla appoints himself dictator, moves to punish cities that have sided with Rome’s enemies, and begins a tyranny that will continue until 79 B.C.
-0082 XX XX Alma 8
-0082 XX XX Alma 9
-0082 XX XX Alma 10
-0082 XX XX Alma 11
-0082 XX XX Alma 12
-0082 XX XX Alma 13

81 B.C.
-0081 XX XX 11 Alma 14
-0081 XX XX Alma 15
-0081 XX XX Alma 16:1-11
-0081 XX XX Alma 25
-0881 XX XX The Japanese emperor Sujin begins a great shipbuilding effort in a move to provide his people with more of the seafood on which so many depend for sustenance.

80 B.C.
-0080 XX XX 12 The Roman dictator Sulla halts public distribution of free grain.

79 B.C.
-0079 XX XX 13 Alma 26
-0079 XX XX Sulla retires voluntarily from public life after completing substantial reforms in Rome’s legal and judiciary system.

78 B.C.
-0078 XX XX 14 Alma 16:12-21
-0078 XX XX Sulla dies at age 60; the democratic consul M. Aemilius Lepidus immediately begins efforts to undo his work, trying to abrogate the constitution. Thwarted, Lepidus raises an army of malcontents in Etruria, but his colleague Q. Lutatius Catulus defeats him in battle outside Rome.

77 B.C.
-0077 XX XX 15 Alma 27
-0077 XX XX M. Aemilius Lepidus suffers total defeat at the hands of a protégé of Sulla. Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey), 29, forces Lepidus to flee to the Hispanic provinces where he soon dies.

76 B.C.
-0076 XX XX 16 Alma 28
-0076 XX XX Alma 29

75 B.C.
-0075 XX XX 17 Alma 30:1-4
-0075 XX XX The Greek physician Asclepiades of Bithynia opposes Hippocratic medicine of 429 B.C., insisting that disease is a result of an inharmonious motion of the corpuscles that compose all bodily tissue. But Asclepiades is the first to distinguish between acute and chronic disease, and many are helped by his recommendations with regard to diet, bathing, and exercise (his patients will include Cicero, Crassus, and Marc Antony).

74 B.C.
-0074 XX XX 18 Alma 30: 4-60
-0074 XX XX Alma 31
-0074 XX XX Alma 32
-0074 XX XX Alma 33
-0074 XX XX Alma 34
-0074 XX XX Alma 35
-0074 XX XX Alma 43:3-54
-0074 XX XX Alma 44

73 B.C.
-0073 XX XX 19 Alma 36
-0073 XX XX Alma 37
-0073 XX XX Alma 38
-0073 XX XX Alma 39
-0073 XX XX Alma 40
-0073 XX XX Alma 41
-0073 XX XX Alma 42
-0073 XX XX Alma 43: 1-2
-0073 XX XX Alma 45
-0073 XX XX Alma 46
-0073 XX XX A third Servile War begins under the leadership of the Thracian slave Spartacus, a gladiator who seizes Mount Vesuvius on the Bay of Naples with the help of other gladiators; he rallies fugitive slaves to the insurrection.

72 B.C.
20 Alma 47
-0072 XX XX Alma 48
-0072 XX XX Alma 49
-0072 XX XX Alma 50:1-16
-0072 XX XX Roman armies sent against Spartacus defeat his force of fugitive slaves.

71 B.C.
-0071 XX XX 21 Alma 50:17-23
-0071 XX XX The king of Pontus Mithradates VI is driven out of his country by the Roman legions of L. Licinius Lucullus and takes refuge at the court of Armenia’s Tigranes II.
-0071 XX XX Spartacus is defeated by the Roman praetor M. Licinius Crassus, 41, who has enriched himself in the service of the late dictator Sulla by buying up properties of proscribed Romans. Pompey returns from the Hispanic provinces and destroys the remnants of the servile army.

70 B.C.
-0070 XX XX 22 Alma 50:24
-0070 XX XX Crassus and Pompey break with the Roman nobility and use their troops to gain the consulship. They restore the privileges of the tribunate, which were removed by Sulla.
-0070 XX XX Armenia’s Tigranes II completes conquests that extend his empire from the Ararat Valley in the north to the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre on the Mediterranean coast. Calling himself king of kings, Tigranes begins construction of a new capital to be called Tigranocerta at the headwaters of the river Tigris.
-0070 XX XX The Seleucid king Phraates III begins to restore order in Parthia but will not be able to repel the Roman legions of Lucullus and Pompey.
-0070 XX XX Crassus and Pompey resume distribution of free grain. Some 40,000 adult male citizens of Rome receive grain dispensations, and the number will rise rapidly (see 58 B.C.).

69 B.C.
-0069 XX XX 23 Alma 50:24
-0069 XX XX The Roman general and epicure Lucius Licinius Lucullus defeats Armenia’s Tigranes II, who has seized Syria, and begins a push into the mountains of Armenia and Parthia toward Pontus.
-0069 XX XX Cherries from the Black Sea kingdom of Pontus sent back to Rome by Lucullus introduce a new fruit tree to Europe.

68 B.C.
-0068 XX XX 24 Alma 50:25-40
-0068 XX XX Roman troops in Armenia mutiny, Lucullus is forced to retreat to the south, and the king of Pontus begins a campaign to regain his realm. Many of the Roman legions have been on campaign for 20 years.
-0068 XX XX Crete falls to the Roman legions.
-0068 XX XX Cleopatra is born.

67 B.C.
-0067 XX XX 25 ALMA 51
-0067 XX XX Mediterranean pirates who have been interfering with Rome’s grain imports from Egypt and North Africa are defeated by Quintus Caecilius Metellus.
-0067 XX XX The Seleucid king Antiochus XIII, who was installed last year at Antioch, is treacherously killed by the Arabian prince of Emesa.

66 B.C.
-0066 XX XX 26 Alma 52:1-14
-0066 XX XX Armenia’s Tigranes II falls into the hands of Pompey, who has driven the king of Pontus Mithradates VI to the eastern edge of the Black Sea and who imposes a fine of 6,000 talents on Tigranes. The Armenian king will rule henceforth as a vassal of Rome; Mithradates will flee to the Crimea.
-0066 XX XX Lucullus returns to Rome and begins entertaining on a lavish scale at feasts so extravagant that the word Lucullan will be used for millennia to denote flamboyant sumptuousness.

65 B.C.
-0065 XX XX 27 Alma 52:15-18
-0065 XX XX Rome’s Asian and Syrian territories are reorganized by Pompey, who establishes four new Roman provinces. He leaves as client kingdoms Cappadocia, Eastern Pontus, Galatia, Judea, and Lycia.
-0065 XX XX Pompey introduces to Rome’s orchards and cuisine apricots from Armenia, peaches from Persia, plums from Damascus, raspberries from Mount Ida (southeast of the old city of Troy), and quinces from Sidon.

-0064 XX XX 28 Alma 52:19-40
-0064 XX XX Alma 53
-0064 XX XX Jerusalem falls to Pompey after a siege as the Romans move to subdue Judea.
-0064 XX XX The Catiline Conspiracy rallies Rome’s discontented debtors, veterans, ruined nobility, and others under the leadership of L. Sergius Catiline, 44. A former governor of Africa, Catiline tried 2 years ago to run for consul on a radical program but was unable to get his name presented to the Comitia Centuriata because of his alleged extortions in Africa. He runs again, but is defeated by the orator M. Tullius Cicero, 42.

63 B.C.
-0063 XX XX 29 Alma 54
-0063 XX XX Alma 55
-0063 XX XX Pompey completes his conquest of Palestine and makes it part of the Roman province of Syria.
-0063 XX XX Roman authorities arrest Lucius Sergius Catiline and his fellow conspirators, the Roman consul Cicero makes orations against Catiline in the Senate, and the conspirators are put to death as without appeal.
-0063 XX XX Mithradates learns of a revolt by his son in Pontus and commits suicide in the Crimea.
-0063 XX XX A system of shorthand notation is invented by Marcus Tullius Tiro, formerly a slave of Cicero.

62 B.C.
-0062 XX XX 30 Alma 56
-0062 XX XX ALMA 57
-0062 XX XX ALMA 58
-0062 XX XX Alma 59
-0062 XX XX ALMA 60
-0062 XX XX ALMA 61
-0062 XX XX Florence is founded on the Arno River in Tuscany.
-0062 XX XX Alma 62:1-11

61 B.C.
-0061 XX XX 31 Alma 62:12-39

60 B.C.
-0060 XX XX 32 ALMA 62:40-51
-0060 XX XX A triumvirate to rule Rome is created by Gaius Julius Caesar, 42, who returns from his governorship of Rome’s Hispanic provinces and forges an alliance with Pompey and Crassus. Caesar is a son-in-law of the late Cinna and an agent of Crassus.

59 B.C.
-0059 XX XX 33 Rome’s new triumvirate distributes Campanian lands among Pompey’s veterans. The triumvirate is solidified by the marriage of Caesar’s daughter Julia to Pompey, whose eastern settlements are confirmed after years of Senatorial opposition to such confirmation, and Julius Caesar is granted Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria for a 5-year period.

58 B.C.
-0058 XX XX 34 Julius Caesar invades Gaul with the aim of enriching himself and creating a military establishment which will rival that of Pompey. He defeats the Helvetii at Bibracte (Autun) and triumphs over the German Ariovistus near Vesontio (Besançon).
-0058 XX XX The Roman demagogue Appius Claudius Pulcher distributes free grain to as many as 300,000 in a bid for the consulship.

57 B.C.
-0057 XX XX 35 Alma 62:52
-0057 XX XX Julius Caesar’s legions defeat the Belgae in northwestern Gaul while the demagogue Appius Claudius Pulcher back at Rome becomes praetor.
-0057 XX XX Philosophy by the Roman poet-philosopher Titus Lucretius Caro, 39, is a 6-volume didactic poem of Epicurean philosophy dealing with ethics, physics, psychology, and the materialistic atoms suggested by the Greek Democritus in 330 B.C. says Lucretius (What is food to one man may be a fierce poison to another).
-0057 XX XX The Roman Senate gives Pompey power to supervise the city’s grain supply as a grain shortage looms.

56 B.C.
-0056 XX XX 36 ALMA 63:1-3
-0056 XX XX Julius Caesar defeats the Veneti on the southern coast of Brittany, defeats the Aquitani in southwestern Gaul, and meets with Pompey and Crassus at Luca to make plans for subduing the opposition against the triumvirate that has arisen at Rome.
-0056 XX XX Elegy () by the Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus, 28, who has visited his brother’s grave in Bithynia. He is famous for his epigrams, his love lyrics, his long poem and his epithalamium

55 B.C.
-0055 XX XX 37 ALMA 63:4-6
-0055 XX XX Rome makes Pompey and Crassus consuls. The Senate extends Caesar’s command in Gaul another 5 years, and it gives Crassus command of Syria and Pompey command of 2 Hispanic provinces. Crassus leaves for the East; Pompey remains at Rome.

54 B.C.
-0054 XX XX 38 ALMA 63:7-9
-0054 XX XX Julius Caesar invades Britain. He fails to conquer the islands but does open them to Roman trade and influence.
-0054 XX XX The triumvirate that rules Rome begins to break up following the death of Caesar’s daughter Julia, who is married to Pompey.
-0054 XX XX Appius Claudius Pulcher becomes consul at Rome.
-0054 XX XX Crassus plunders Jerusalem’s Great Temple.
-0054 XX XX Julius Caesar finds the Britons making Cheshire cheese.

53 B.C.
-0053 XX XX 39 ALMA 63:10-17

52 B.C.
-0052 XX XX 40 Helaman 1:1-13
-0052 XX XX The Gallic leader Vercingetorix, chief of the Averni, surrenders to Julius Caesar after a siege by the Roman legions.

51 B.C.
-0051 XX XX 41 HELAMAN 1:14-34
-0051 XX XX Julius Caesar completes his conquest of Gaul.

50 B.C.
-0050 XX XX 42 Helaman 2

49 B.C.
-0049 XX XX 43 HELAMAN 3:1
-0049 XX XX Julius Caesar leads his forces across the Rubicon River into Italy to begin a civil war. The die is cast says Caesar.

48 B.C.
-0048 06 29 Julius Caesar defeats Gnaeus Pompey at Pharsalus in southern Thessaly and becomes absolute ruler of Rome. Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is slain at Pelusium. Caesar arrives at Alexandria, learns of Pompey’s murder, but remains to carry on a war in behalf of Egypt’s dethroned queen Cleopatra, 20. Her brother Ptolemy XII Philopator is killed, and a younger brother succeeds as co-ruler.
-0048 XX XX 44 HELAMAN 3:2 (part 1)
-0048 XX XX Some 500 bargeloads of foodstuffs and other imports for Rome are pulled up the Tiber by oxen each month from the port of Ostia.

47 B.C.
-0047 08 02 Julius Caesar moves east in June to Asia Minor. He defeats the king of Pontus Pharnaces III in a battle near Zela. Pharnaces has been an ally of the late Gnaeus Pompey, and Caesar announces his victory with the brief dispatch, I came, I saw, I conquered.
-0047 XX XX 45 HELAMAN 3:2 (part 2)

46 B.C.
-0046 04 06 Julius Caesar returns to Italy, quells a mutiny of the legions in Campania, crosses to Africa, and destroys a republican army of 14 legions at Thapsus. Most republican leaders are killed. Caesar returns triumphantly to Rome in late July with Cleopatra as his mistress, is made dictator for 10 years, and sails in November for Spain, where Pompey’s sons hold out.
-0046 XX XX 46 HELAMAN 3:3-18
-0046 XX XX Julius Caesar returns in triumph to Rome with prisoners who include Vercingetorix, chief of the Averni, who is executed.
-0046 XX XX Julius Caesar grants Roman citizenship to Greek physicians, whose status has until now been that of slave or freedman.

45 B.C.
-0045 03 17 Julius Caesar crushes Pompey’s sons at Munda and returns to Rome in September. He adopts his great-nephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian), 17, as his son.
-0045 XX XX 47 HELAMAN 3:19

44 B.C.
-0044 XX XX 48 HELAMAN 3:19-22
-0044 XX XX Julius Caesar is made dictator for life. He reduces the number of Romans receiving free grain from 320,000 to 150,000.
-0044 XX XX Julius Caesar is assassinated at the Senate March 15 by conspirators who include Decimus Junius Brutus and Marcus Junius Brutus, both former governors of Gaul, and Gaius Cassius Longinus, who had been pardoned by Caesar for fighting alongside Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 B.C.
-0044 XX XX Caesar’s mistress Cleopatra returns to Egypt with her son Caesarion and murders her brother (and former husband) Ptolemy XIII Philopater.
-0044 XX XX Roman orator Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony), 39, persuades the Romans to expel Caesar’s assassins.

43 B.C.
-0043 12 07 Cicero is executed by agents of Marc Antony with the acquiescence of Octavian.
-0043 XX XX 49 HELAMAN 3:23-32
-0043 XX XX Marc Antony marches north to dislodge Decimus Brutus from Mutina (Modena) but is defeated in two battles and forced to retire westward toward Gaul by Gaius Octavius, who calls himself Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, forces the Senate to elect him consul, and joins with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus in November to form a second triumvirate.

42 B.C.
-0042 XX XX 50 HELAMAN 3:32
-0042 XX XX Julius Caesar is deified by the Roman triumvirate, which erects a temple to Caesar in the Forum and obliges Roman magistrates to take an oath to support the arrangements of the late Caesar.
-0042 XX XX Cassius is defeated by Marc Antony and Octavian at Philippi and commits suicide after hearing a false report that M. Junius Brutus has also been defeated. Brutus has, in fact, won a victory over Octavian, but is finally defeated 20 days later and also commits suicide.

41 B.C.
-0041 XX XX 51 HELAMAN 3:33-35
-0041 XX XX Egypt’s Cleopatra meets Marc Antony at Tarsus, and Antony, 42, succumbs to Cleopatra, now 28, just as Julius Caesar, at 51, succumbed 8 years ago. Antony had planned to punish Cleopatra but follows her to Egypt.
-0041 XX XX Eclogues by the Roman poet Virgil, 29, are pastoral poems expressing emotion at having his lands confiscated (see 41 B.C.). Virgil will obtain restitution of his lands by personal appeal to Octavian.
-0041 XX XX Rome’s triumvirate confiscates farmland in the Campania for distribution among returning legionnaires.

40 B.C.
-0040 XX XX 52 HELAMAN 3:36
-0040 XX XX Marc Antony’s wife Fulvia and his brother Lucius Antoninus make war against the faithless Antony but are defeated at Perusia (Perugsia). Fulvia dies, and Marc Antony is left free to remarry. He marries the sister of Octavian (Octavia), and Octavian takes Gaul from Lepidus, leaving him only Africa.

39 B.C.
-0039 XX XX 53 HELAMAN 3:37
-0039 XX XX Rome’s triumvirate signs the Pact of Mycaenum recognizing the Mediterranean pirate Sextus Pompey as ruler of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and the Peloponnese. Pompey’s fleet can interrupt Rome’s grain supply, and this puts him in a position to dictate terms.
-0039 XX XX Octavian divorces his second wife and marries Livia, previously the wife of Tiberius Claudius Nero.

38 B.C.
-0038 XX XX 54 Helaman 4:1-3
-0038 XX XX Octavian conquers Iberia and begins to gain ascendancy in the triumvirate that rules Rome. Marc Antony returns to Egypt.
-0038 XX XX The Laocoön by Rhodian sculptors Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus.

37 B.C.
-0037 XX XX 55 Judea’s Herod the Great begins a 33-year reign at age 36, 2 years after his confirmation as king by Marc Antony, Octavian, and the Roman Senate.

36 B.C.
-0036 XX XX 56 HELAMAN 4:4
-0036 XX XX Octavian’s general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa makes the Mediterranean safe for Roman shipping by defeating the pirate Sextus Pompey with a fleet that includes ships supplied by Marc Antony. Sextus Pompey flees to Miletus, where he dies. Lepidus occupies Sicily, but his troops desert to Octavian, who ends the ambitions of Lepidus. Octavian places Lepidus in captivity at Circeii, where he will live until his death in 13 B.C.
-0036 XX XX Parthian forces defeat Marc Antony. He retreats to Armenia and openly marries his mistress Cleopatra despite his existing marriage to Octavia.

35 B.C.
-0035 XX XX 57 HELAMAN 4:5
-0035 XX XX Octavian consolidates Roman power in the Alps and in Illyria.

34 B.C.
-0034 XX XX 58 HELAMAN 4:5-8

33 B.C.
-0033 XX XX 59 HELAMAN 4:8

32 B.C.
-0032 XX XX 60 HELAMAN 4:9
-0032 XX XX Octavian arouses fears in Rome that Egypt’s Cleopatra will dominate the empire. He publishes what he purports to be the will of Marc Antony, a will in which Antony bequeaths Rome’s eastern possessions to Cleopatra. Marc Antony divorces Octavia, and her brother has the comitia annul Antony’s imperium.

31 B.C.
-0031 09 02 The Battle of Actium ends in a naval victory for Octavian, who becomes ruler of the entire Roman world. Cleopatra escapes to Egypt with 60 ships, followed by Antony, whose army then surrenders to Octavian.
-0031 XX XX 61 HELAMAN 4:10-17
-0031 XX XX Earthquake, causing a heavy loss of life, occurs in Palestine (The Jewish War, Antiqities Josephus)

30 B.C.
-0030 08 29 Marc Antony commits suicide after hearing a false report that Cleopatra has killed herself. She dies, applying an asp to her breast after failing to seduce Octavian upon his arrival at Alexandria. Cleopatra’s son Caesarion is murdered, and Egypt becomes a Roman province.
-0030 XX XX 62 Helaman 4:18-26
-0030 XX XX Helaman 5
-0030 XX XX The sundial invented by the Chinese serves as a primitive clock.
-0030 XX XX Georgics by poet Virgil, completed after 7 years’ work, is a didactic 4-volume work ennobling the Italian land, its trees, grapevines and olive groves, herds, flocks, and beehives.

29 B.C.
63 Helaman 6:1-6
-0029 XX XX Greek mariners employed by Rome’s Octavian open the ancient trade routes from Egypt to India as peace returns to the Roman world.

28 B.C.
-0028 XX XX 64 HELAMAN 6:7-13

27 B.C.
-0027 01 23 The Roman Empire that will rule most of the Western world until A.D. 476 is founded by Octavian who one week earlier received the name Augustus Caesar from the Senate in gratitude for his achievements. Helped by the rich Roman merchant Mycenas, Octavian makes himself emperor at age 35 with the title Imperator Caesar Octavianus, a title he will soon change to Augustus Caesar as he begins a 41-year reign.
-0027 XX XX 65 HELAMAN 6:14
-0027 XX XX The number of poor Romans receiving free grain is increased by Augustus from 150,000 to 200,000.

26 B.C.
-0026 XX XX 66 HELAMAN 6:15

25 B.C.
-0025 XX XX 67 HELAMAN 6:16-32

24 B.C.
-0024 XX XX 68 HELAMAN 6:33-41
-0024 XX XX The emperor Augustus acts to reduce the exorbitant price of spices in Rome. He appoints the prefect of Egypt Aeilius Gallus to lead a campaign that incorporates the south Arabian spice kingdom into the Roman Empire, but the expedition will fail.

23 B.C.
-0023 XX XX 69 Helaman 7

22 B.C.
-0022 XX XX 70

21 B.C.
-0021 XX XX 71 HELAMAN 10
-0021 XX XX Regensburg is founded on the Danube in a part of Gaul that will become Bavaria.

20 B.C.
-0020 XX XX 72 Helaman 11:1-2
-0020 XX XX Rebuilding of Jerusalem’s Great Temple begins under Herod the Great, a convert to Judaism in his youth, who has been building theaters, hippodromes, and other public buildings.

19 B.C.
-0019 XX XX 73 HELAMAN 11:2-5
-0019 XX XX The Pont du Gard, completed by Roman engineers across the Gard River 12 miles northeast of Nmes, is an aqueduct bridge 600 yards long with 3 tiers of arches rising 160 feet above the river.
-0019 XX XX The Aeneid by poet Virgil is a great epic about the role of Rome in world history: I sing of arms and of the man . . .(. .). Virgil sets off for Athens to spend 3 years in the East, meets the emperor Augustus, is persuaded to return, and dies September 21 at age 50, a few days after landing at Brundisium.

18 B.C.
-0018 XX XX 74 HELAMAN 11:5
-0018 XX XX Amores by the Roman poet Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso), 25, who has been educated for a career in law but has devoted himself instead to writing love poems.

17 B.C.
-0017 XX XX 75 HELAMAN 11:6-16
-0017 XX XX Ode Carmen Saeculare by the Roman poet-critic Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus), 47, is sung by a chorus of youths and maidens at a great festival of games put on by the emperor Augustus. Horace is well known for his Odes [Seize the day, carpe diem (I, ix)], his Satires [There is a certain method in his madness (II, iii)], and his Epistles [Well begun is half done (I, ii)].

16 B.C.
-0016 XX XX 76 HELAMAN 11:17-20

15 B.C.
-0015 XX XX 77 HELAMAN 11:21
-0015 XX XX Rome extends her frontier to the upper Danube by annexations following an uprising by Germanic tribesmen.
-0015 XX XX Heroides by poet Ovid: Where belief is painful, we are slow to believe (II, ix).
-0015 XX XX The Temple of Dendur in Lower Nubia is erected by the emperor Augustus on the bank of the Nile.

14 B.C.
-0014 XX XX 78 HELAMAN 11:22
-0014 XX XX Augsburg has its beginnings in the Gallic colony Augusta Vindelicorum founded by the Roman emperor Augustus on a 1,500-acre plateau between the rivers Lerch and Wertach, which meet in the plain below.

13 B.C.
-0013 XX XX 79 HELAMAN 11:23

12 B.C.
-0012 XX XX 80 HELAMAN 11:24-29

11 B.C.
-0011 XX XX 81 HELAMAN 11:30-35

10 B.C.
-0010 XX XX 82 HELAMAN 11:36 (part 1)

9 B.C.
-0009 XX XX 83 HELAMAN 11:36 (part 2)

8 B.C.
-0008 XX XX 84 HELAMAN 11:36 (part 3)

7 B.C.
-0007 XX XX 85 HELAMAN 11:37-38
-0007 XX XX HELAMAN 12

6 B.C.
-0006 XX XX Helaman 13
-0006 XX XX HELAMAN 14
-0006 XX XX HELAMAN 15
-0006 XX XX HELAMAN 16:1-9

5 B.C.
-0005 XX XX 87 HELAMAN 16:10

4 B.C.
-0004 XX XX 88 HELAMAN 16:11

3 B.C.
-0003 XX XX 89 HELAMAN 16:12

2 B.C.
-0002 XX XX 90 HELAMAN 16:13-25

1 B.C.
-0001 XX XX 91


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